What is a seizure and what are the types?
A seizure occurs when the electrical signals sent through the neurons in the brain start behaving abnormally. There is a sudden surge in the electrical activity that takes place in the brain. This sudden spike is what causes a seizure.
There are two categories of seizures, the partial seizures and the generalized seizures. Generalized seizures take place when the entire brain is affected, and partial seizures take place when only a certain part of the brain is affected.
A partial seizure is also known as a focal onset seizure. It may occur due to many reasons. The main causes of a partial seizure are a stroke, brain injury, high blood pressure, epilepsy, congenital brain defects, kidney failure, and liver failure.
Additionally, a partial seizure may be caused by bites, stings, phenylketonuria, drugs, and infections. Partial seizures are more common in people who are 65 years old or above.
What are the common symptoms of a partial seizure?
A partial seizure affects an individual emotionally and physically. The symptoms can occur in anyone who is older than 1 year. There are times when the symptoms of partial seizure resemble the symptoms of mental or nerve disorders.
The symptoms may last anywhere between a few seconds to a few minutes. There are several different symptoms of partial seizures. There are three types of partial seizures, including simple, complex, and secondary that are generalized. The symptoms of partial seizures are as follows:
- One performs repetitive movements. This includes rubbing one of the hands excessively.
- One feels sick and nauseated for no apparent reason. This feeling refuses to go away.
- One might experience jerk movements affecting the head, the arms, or the legs that becomes unstoppable.
- One feels like something is walking on their skin when there is nothing.
- One keeps chewing the food and it might seem that he or she is unable to control the duration.
- One has no control over the eyes. The eyes may start to move from one side to the other. The pupils dilate suddenly and the ability to see is affected.
- One may forget what happened earlier on the same day.
- The face or neck starts to flush suddenly even though there is no reason for that to happen.
- One suddenly starts having laughing fits or crying fits, where he or she can’t seem to control themselves.
- One starts to feel anxious and fearful about everything.
- One starts to sweat profusely without engaging in any physical activity or stress.
- One starts staring at something even when he or she doesn’t mean to.
- One feels sudden abdominal pain, which refuses to go away.
- One begins to hallucinate at any random time of the day and feels it is real.
- One looks like he or she is awake but is unconscious.
- One is unable to speak even though he or she has the thought in mind.
- One has muscle contractions in a certain part or parts of the body.
- One feels a sense of tingling all over his or her body or in specific areas.
- One starts to walk in circles and keep doing it repeatedly.
- One experiences sudden mood changes. One wants to cry for a moment and in the other, he or she might want to laugh their heart out.
- One sees light flashes in the middle of the day and can’t do anything about it.
- One has extreme sensations where he or she feels cold and then suddenly feels hot out of nowhere.
- One’s heart rate increases suddenly and remains like that for quite some time.
One may experience generalized seizure symptoms when having a severe focal seizure. The symptoms include:
- Loss of bladder control
- Eyes rolling back
- Loss of balance
- Breathing problems
- Body stiffening
- Limp muscles
There are some people who can continue to do normal things after a seizure. However, there are some who may have difficulty doing anything at all after they experience partial seizures symptoms.
When one experiences any of these symptoms, it is better to consult a doctor right away. If the symptoms persist for more than a few minutes, then it is better to call 911 right away.
What are the treatment options for partial seizures?
When it comes to diagnosis, the doctor will perform certain tests and examinations. These include a computed tomography (CT) scan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and an electroencephalography (EEG). These tests and examinations help the doctor understand an individual’s nervous system and brain in detail. Once the cause has been found, the doctor is able to determine the right type of treatment for the individual.
The reason quick treatment is important is that sometimes seizures can lead to great emotional distress. They might sometimes trigger suicidal thoughts. Medications are generally prescribed for treating and controlling focal onset seizures.
One may have to make lifestyle changes. Some of them include exercising more often, meditating, and sleeping well at night. In severe cases, surgery may be recommended by the doctor.